Each end site will generally be assigned one /48 subnet. You can determine the block size you qualify for based on the total number of end sites in your network (refer to the following table). This should include all existing end sites as well as any new end sites that will be deployed within one year.
IPv6 block size is based on the number and size of subnets to be assigned to customers, not on the number of IP addresses required by customers. ISPs will typically assign one subnet (/48 or smaller) to each customer. The default /32 minimum allocation is sufficient for many ISPs since it contains 65,536 /48 subnets to assign to customers. ISPs may also opt to request a smaller /36 allocation.
If you are applying for a block larger than /32, make sure to inform us of the block size to be assigned, number of serving sites, and number of customers served by the largest serving site so we can determine the appropriate block size to meet your needs.
AWS announces the general availability of Amazon provided IPv6 contiguous Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) blocks with Amazon VPC IP Address Manager (IPAM). Within IPAM, customers can create IPv6 publicly scoped pools and provision with BYOIP CIDR blocks. Now, customers can provision Amazon provided IPv6 CIDR blocks from /52 up to /40 in size into separate pools for association to Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs). Contiguous CIDR blocks can be used for sequential VPC creation. CIDRs can then be aggregated in a single entry across networking and security constructs like access control lists, route tables, security groups, and firewalls.
Before today, customers could use bring your own IP addresses (BYOIP) to have sequential VPCs. This means you could purchase an IP range from your Regional Internet Registry (RIR) and AWS would validate ownership prior to using the CIDR. Alternatively, customers could create a VPC directly with an Amazon provided IPv6 CIDR block. In this case, the CIDR is not sequential with any existing customer CIDRs, and it is ephemeral, existing within the customer account for the life of the VPC. With Amazon provided contiguous IPv6 CIDR blocks, network administrators can provision an IPv6 CIDR block with just a few clicks. Then they can plan, segment, and allocate IP space based on different use cases such as applications, teams, or environments. Now, customers will retain these CIDR blocks beyond the life of the VPC. Amazon provided IPv6 CIDR blocks are available in a default size of /52, which supports addressing for up to 16 VPCs. Customers can receive additional and larger CIDR block allocations by request.
IPv6 addresses are each 128 bits long.Because each digit in an IPv6 address can have 16 different values (from 0 to F=15), each digit represents the overall value of 4 bits (one nibble), with 32 digits total.As with IPv4, CIDR notation describes ranges in terms of a common prefix of bits.For example 2001:db8::/32 means that the range described has the first 32 bits set to the binary digits 00100000000000010000110110111000.Also like IPv4, MediaWiki implements IPv6 rangeblocks using CIDR notation.
The best guideline for assessing collateral damage for an IPv6 rangeblock is to check the WHOIS, and the actual amount of activity from the range.MediaWiki supports looking up a range's contributions with Special:Contributions, e.g. Special:Contributions/2001:db8::/32 (note that the latter range will not return any edits).
In assessing collateral damage it is important to understand IPv6 address allocations to end-users.The most important fact to know about is that single or multiple /64 subnets for an end-user connection is a practical requirement of IPv6.What this means is that IPv6 connections will have at least 264 addresses assigned to them, which is around 18 billion billion; sometimes they can have considerably more.The reason IPv6 requires /64 subnetting is that any deviation from this breaks a great number of IPv6 protocols, and it will also be needed for future developments.The only exception to longer than /64 subnetting is for certain connections where many IPv6 features are not needed, for example a /126 subnet for point-to-point inter-router linking.But this is not relevant for IPv6 rangeblocking since no end-users will have addresses of this sort.
So in many ways IPv6 /64 rangeblocks are akin to blocks of single IPv4 addresses, as a /64 subnet is the norm for connections, although sometimes end-user allocations will include multiple /64 subnets.So generally speaking IPv6 /64 rangeblocks are recommended, as blocks of single IPv6 addresses can be easily circumvented by users with minimal technical knowledge, and normally the risk of collateral damage is low.But be aware that like in IPv4, where a single static IPv4 address may supply a household or institution of some kind, a static IPv6 /64 range may also supply a household or institution, so multiple users can be affected by /64 rangeblocks.
An exception to this is mobile broadband access; these IPs are allocated dynamically within certain ranges, and blocking these is unlikely to be successful, as they are easily circumvented and risk collateral damage; this applies to all types of blocks, whether they are IPv4 or IPv6 blocks of single addresses or ranges.Mobile broadband addresses can be checked using a WHOIS service.Note that IPv6 /64 ranges are unlikely to be a dynamic, rather they are likely to be static, and typically won't change for an end-user.This is due to the large number of available IPv6 addresses, meaning dynamic allocation is unnecessary; this lowers the risk of collateral damage.
He calculated that that new block would only last until the end of November, requiring yet another expensive purchase. Put into a spreadsheet, the cost of sticking with the old addresses becomes all the more stark: it will save the company millions of dollars to shift to IPv6.
Hurricane Electric is aggressively pursuing peering with all existing IPv6networks. Our routing table has more prefixes (routes) and more paths toeach prefix (ways to get to a destination address block) than most otherIPv6 providers.
How did we run out? First, large blocks were allocated to companies at the time IPv4 was designed. You can see interesting blocks of addresses allocated to AT&T, Xerox, GE, IBM, The United States Postal Service, MIT, Ford Motor Company, Prudential, and others. Second, the proliferation of mobile phones dramatically increased the number of internet-connected devices. And finally, well, we're just not that efficient at using them.
With so many IPv6 addresses, you'd think that you'd be able to request your own block as Jon Murai did in the early days of the internet. Unfortunately, you can't right now, because of the way that internet service providers work.
Things just got serious! There are now 8 blocks rather than 4, and rather than each block being 1 byte (which were represented as a number from 0-255), each block is instead 2 bytes represented by 4 hexadecimal characters. There are 128 bits in an IPv6 address, meaning instead of a measly 4,000,000,000 like IPv4, IPv6 has around 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses.
Now CIDR notation is more refined and more accurate than the concept of C-Block; in the example above the two IP addresses are not just in the same C-Block they are even more closely related as 6 bits in the last block are also identical. In CIDR notation we could say both these IP addresses are in the 199.181.132/30 block to indicate that the 30 leading bits are identical.
The point of a C-Block from Google's perspective and the perspective of our SEO is solely to identify whether links are originating on the same ISP network. So that should obviously remain the focus. So my best guess would be to focus on how these IPs are allocated to ISPs (ISPs normally get large continuous blocks of IP addresses they can then use for their customers' websites).
With IPv6, I believe that ISPs will be given /32 blocks (the leading 32 bits will be the same, leaving 96 bits to create addresses for their customers), which they will then assign to their users in /64 blocks (I asked a few people, this tends to be what is happening, but I have read that this might sometimes be /48 blocks instead). Notice that ISPs now have an order of magnitude more IP addresses (each) than the whole internet had before!
So, I think the equivalent of a C-Block in IPv6 land would be a /32 block because that is what an ISP will usually be assigned (and allows them to then carve that up into 4 billion /64 blocks for their users!).
Furthermore, in IPv6 the minimum allocation is /32 so a single /32 block cannot run across multiple ISPs as I understand it, so there is no way two IPs in the same /32 could belong to two different ISPs. If our goal is to continue to examine whether sites are more likely related than two random sites, then knowing they are on the same ISP (which is what C-Blocks do) is our goal.
So now a single server with multiple sites will have a separate IP for each of those sites (it is also possible that the server has multiple IPv6 blocks assigned, one for each different customer - I think this is actually the intention and hopefully becomes the reality).
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Also interested to know the current status on the static IPV6 option. I believe I saw in another post that the expected timeframe was sometime in 2015. Will there be additional charges above and beyond the charges for the IPV4 blocks?
I have several systems regularly being notified that application svhost was blocked and always blocked by the IPv6 firewall rule. All clients reporting this so far are Win7 units but I have not verified every instance either. The message everyone gets comes from 3 IPv6 sources on the network. One is a server and the other 2 I've not located yet but I believe they come from a switch. My quick fix for these windows 7 clients was to change the Notification Area Icon setting from Show to "Hide Icon and notifications" manually on each client getting this nusiance alert. But I don't like that because the user can't easily see the icon and whether there is any issues with Symantec. So now I have decided to go back to "Show Icon and notifications", and just disable the firewall rule called "Block IPv6". What are the negatives in doing this? This rule is set to block all things IPV6, what is the reason for the rule in the first place? Can anyone tell me more about this rule? Thanks 781b155fdc