There are 1.69 billion passenger journeys in the UK a year, with an average of 57 minutes per journey. With continued increase in usage of smartphones and tablets with Wi-Fi capability, current systems in place to provide the required Wi-Fi connectivity on trains are not sufficient. One possible solution is a transport connectivity system using radio relays along the trackside, and this is analysed below.
Learn the details of the 5G New Radio with our latest wireless standards reference poster. On the poster you will find all kinds of information about 5G NR to help you get familiar with the new technology and prepare for future 5G designs.
5G Spectrum and FrequencyMultiple frequency ranges are now being dedicated to 5G new radio (NR). The portion of the radio spectrum with frequencies between 30 GHz and 300 GHz is known as the millimeter wave, since wavelengths range from 1-10 mm. Frequencies between 24 GHz and 100 GHz have been allocated to 5G in multiple regions worldwide.
5G is being deployed around the globe, and brings with it new technologies and new challenges. Although for many, it feels like we just got here, the evolution of 5G has already begun. This webinar provides a technical overview of the key radio aspects of 5G. The architecture of NG-RAN including gNB-CU and gNB-DU is illustrated. Key features of the New Radio (NR) air interface are also described. A variety of NR topics are covered such as OFDM numerologies, frame structure, massive MIMO, channel coding, and radio protocol stack.
This 5G awareness poster by Electrosensitivity UK -uk.info/ has been banned by the Ads Council. It is the second poster on the health impact of wireless banned by the Ads Council despite the hundreds of scientific papers provided to the Ads Council.
"[W]e're calling on the broad wireless industry to commit to labeling something 5G only if new device hardware is connecting to the network using new radio technology to deliver new capabilities," Verizon CTO Kyle Malady wrote in a blog post yesterday [emphasis theirs]. "Verizon is making this commitment today: We won't take an old phone and just change the software to turn the 4 in the status bar into a 5. We will not call our 4G network a 5G network if customers don't experience a performance or capability upgrade that only 5G can deliver."
If you have any questions about how release 17 will impact your network and how you can monitor what is happening inside of it, as well as signing up for our new upcoming 5G poster feel free to email us at: firstname.lastname@example.org or contact us here, and we will be happy to advise on how we can help.
5G represents an evolution in telecommunication standards. To enable increased performance, 5G will extend into higher frequencies around 3.5 GHz and up to a few tens of GHz. The higher frequencies are new to mobile phone networks, but are commonly used in other applications, such as point-to-point radio links and body-scanners for security checks.
Currently, exposure from 5G infrastructures at around 3.5 GHz is similar to that from existing mobile phone base stations. With the use of multiple beams from 5G antennas, exposure could be more variable as a function of location of the users and their usage. Given that the 5G technology is currently at an early stage of deployment, the extent of any change in exposure to radiofrequency fields is still under investigation.
To date, and after much research performed, no adverse health effect has been causally linked with exposure to wireless technologies. Health-related conclusions are drawn from studies performed across the entire radio spectrum but, so far, only a few studies have been carried out at the frequencies to be used by 5G.
Tissue heating is the main mechanism of interaction between radiofrequency fields and the human body. Radiofrequency exposure levels from current technologies result in negligible temperature rise in the human body.
As part of ongoing monitoring activities, the FDA analyzes published epidemiological studies for specific outcomes including brain and other tumors as well as for any evidence of other adverse events. No clear and consistent pattern has emerged from epidemiological studies. Based on the evaluation of the currently available information, the FDA believes that the weight of the scientific evidence does not support an increase in health risks from radio frequency exposure from cell phone use at or below the radio frequency exposure limits set by the FCC.
Over the last decade or so, many scientific articles have been published on the effects of radio frequency energy on animals. None of these articles have produced convincing evidence that localized exposure of radio frequency radiation (RFR) at levels that would be encountered by cell phone users can lead to health problems. Although some researchers have reported adverse biological changes associated with RF energy, these studies have not been replicated. Most published studies have failed to show an association between exposure to RF energy from a cell phone and health problems.
In vivo animal studies assessing possible adverse or other effects of radio frequency energy are extremely challenging studies to design and undertake due to numerous confounding factors. The methodological flaws and weaknesses in many radio frequency energy exposure studies include:
In 2018, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) published the results of two hazard identification studies conducted at the request of the FDA. The studies were conducted with high power levels of RFR over the whole body of experimental rodents. The radio frequency energy was delivered in intervals of 10 minutes on and 10 minutes off for 18 hours and 20 minutes a day, every day for 2 years.
In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph that classified radio frequency fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (class 2B). This classification is an indication that more research is probably justified. The 2013 IARC classification was based on limited evidence in humans which were from a few case-control epidemiological studies.
To date, the scientific evidence indicates symptoms experienced by people who self-identify as having electromagnetic hypersensitivity occur when the individual believes they are being exposed to radio frequency energy. Based on the available scientific evidence, their very real symptoms are not the result of radio frequency exposures. Many studies have been done to determine if participants can determine if they are being exposed to RF or a sham exposure. The results indicate people cannot sense when they are being exposed to RF. The World Health Organization has a fact sheet on this subject: Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity. The FDA continues to monitor all scientific publications in this area.
Hoboken Girl reached out to representatives at Verizon for some information regarding the new 5G towers that are on their way to Hoboken, as the aforementioned poster alleges that this number of towers in such a confined space means higher doses of exposure to electromagnetic frequencies.
All equipment used for our 4G and 5G networks must comply with federal safety standards. Those standards have wide safety margins and are designed to protect everyone, including children. Everyday exposure to the radio frequency energy from 4G and 5G small cells are well within those safety limits, and is comparable to exposure from products such as baby monitors, Wi-Fi routers, and Bluetooth devices.
With contributions from a panel of international experts on the topic, the book presents the main new technology components in 5G and describes the physical layer, radio protocols and network performance. The authors review the deployment aspects such as site density and transport network and explore the 5G performance aspects including data rates and coverage and latency. The book also contains illustrative examples of practical field measurement. In addition, the book includes the most recent developments in 4G LTE evolution and offers an outlook for the future of the evolution of 5G. This important book:
HARRI HOLMA, Fellow, Nokia Bell Labs, Finland. Harri Holma has edited seven books about 3G and 4G technologies since 2001. Dr Holma is working with Nokia Bell Labs with main interest in radio systems and mobile technologies. ANTTI TOSKALA, Head of 3GPP Radio Standardization, Nokia Bell Labs, Finland.??Antti Toskala's group was responsible for the standardization of WCDMA physical layer, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and for the start of uplink packet data evolution (HSUPA). As part of the 2010 LTE World Summit LTE Awards, he received the "Award for Individual Contribution for LTE Development" recognizing his contribution to both LTE standardization and LTE knowledge spreading in the industry. TAKEHIRO NAKAMURA, VP and Managing Director of the 5G Laboratories in NTT DOCOMO, Inc., Japan. Mr Nakamura joined NTT Laboratories in 1990. He has been engaged in the standardization activities for the WCDMA, HSPA, LTE/LTE-Advanced and 5G at ARIB in Japan since 1997. He has been the leader of 2020 and Beyond Ad Hoc (20B AH) in ARIB since October 2013. Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site
The Wireless Innovation Forum is a non-profit mutual benefit corporation dedicated to advocating for spectrum innovation, and advancing radio technologies that support essential or critical communications worldwide. Their Technology of the Year award is presented to an individual or organization for a breakthrough product or technology in the field of Software Defined or Cognitive Radio as selected by the members.
Because of its contribution to the future development of the next-generation communications (5G) by developing a complete new set of radio channels models based on realistic end-user scenarios and requirements. These new models will enable the testing and optimization of next-generation radio devices in a very wide set of the frequency spectrum, from relatively low frequencies in the current cellular frequency bands to centimeter and millimeter wave frequencies. These models will therefore help to speed up development of the next generation of wireless technology. 1e1e36bf2d